8. Spatial Orientation

Spatial orientation is the ability to imagine certain spatial scenes from other perspectives or viewpoints purely mentally and thus to put oneself into other positions of a spatial scene. It is the only one of the eight basic routines in which the task solver moves mentally in the given spatial scene. The basic routine spatial orientation also includes the ability to determine concrete distances and angles to other objects after a movement in a real scene. The spatial orientation ability, which is neurologically processed in the hippocampus and the adjacent entorhinal cortex (Hafting et al., 2005), is a crucial prerequisite for successful practical coping with life.